Sunday, January 15, 2023

Ukraine’s and China’s Effects on Global Supply Chains

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Changes that destroyed the supply chain

The aftermath of Ukraine’s war and a coronavirus outbreak in China’s industrial heartland are causing new kinks in international supply chains, dashed hopes for a return to consistently smooth freight shipments this year, and rising consumer prices.

Global Supply Chains
Global Supply Chains

Due to allied financial penalties and the shutdown of Russian airspace, freight flights are being forced to travel longer, more expensive routes from Asia to Europe. Dozens of Chinese companies and port warehouses that feed the US remain closed as the country experiences its greatest coronavirus outbreak since the first wave in Wuhan. In addition, triple-digit oil prices are driving up fuel costs for ocean carriers and trucks.

Maersk, the world’s second-largest cargo carrier, cautioned on Thursday of “unpredictable operational repercussions” from the Russia-Ukraine conflict. At the same time, in southern China, the length of stay has increased while trying to dock at the ports of Yantian, Chiwan, and Shekou.

The Inside Story of the USA’s Broken Supply Chain

According to World Bank data, ocean-spanning supply lines have driven prosperity over the last 30 years, allowing the global economy to expand over 212 times.

They appear to be a failure now. Closures of factories Workforce shortages due to wildfires a wrecked container ship is obstructing the Suez Canal.

And that was before the Ukraine war and China’s coronavirus catastrophe. Supply chain issues were the one constant in the pandemic-era economy. Last week, a vessel owned by the same shipping firm ran aground in Maryland’s Chesapeake Bay, echoing the 2021 Suez disaster.

“These things are becoming more common,” said Ami Daniel, CEO of Windward, a London-based marine intelligence service. “The world is simply becoming more difficult to deal with.”

Russia and China’s issues arose as most of the world’s most enormous backlogs appeared to be shrinking. For example, according to the Marine Exchange of Southern California, the logjam of ships off the coast of Southern California, which surged to more than 100 last year, has been slashed in half.

Cargo started flowing faster late last year as port officials threatened terminal owners with fines for containers that remained on the terminals. As a result, the Port of Los Angeles handled 5.4 percent more containers in the first two months of this year than in the same period in 2021, setting a new record.” Fluidity and velocity in our ports keep improving,” the Port of Los Angeles’ executive director, Gene Seroka, told reporters this week.

However, Lars Jensen, CEO of Vespucci Maritime in Copenhagen, described the apparent improvement as “an illusion,” claiming that ocean carriers have been moving boats to other U.S. ports, notably Charleston, S.C., causing fewer bottlenecks there.

Imports are expected to rise this spring as stores replenish their stock. Many businesses are braced for prolonged problems obtaining what they want. Hamilton Beach, a producer of coffee makers, blenders, and kitchen appliances, told investors that supply chain limitations and rising transportation costs will “remain throughout this year.” Executives intend to boost prices in response, demonstrating how supply chain bottlenecks are causing the most significant consumer price rise in 40 years.

Inflation revealed how prices skyrocketed.

If you glance at the Los Angeles harbor, you don’t see much respite. It will take more time to solve these supply chain bottlenecks, said Michael Wax, CEO of Forto, a freight forwarder located in Berlin.

According to the Freightos index, the cost of moving a conventional cargo container from China to Los Angeles has risen by 20% in the last two months to $16,353.

That is more than a twelfth of what it cost in the months preceding the outbreak. The recent increase in energy prices hasn’t helped matters. Earlier this month, the price of a metric ton of low-sulfur petroleum products used by ocean-going cargo ships surpassed $1,000, virtually double its pre-pandemic level.

Supply routes have already been strained since Russia invaded Ukraine on February 24. Aside from its role as an oil and gas provider, Russia is not as important to the world economy as China. However, the war and the restrictions that have unexpectedly cut the country from regular business send shockwaves across cargo lines.

The consequences of Omicron and the failure of labor negotiations

Although southern ports remain operational, neighboring warehouses have been shuttered, with limited transportation services. According to Everstream, coronavirus testing at Yantian has cut transportation productivity by more than half. Some cargoes ordinarily cross the border by vehicle to Hong Kong are now making quick trips by boat.

Ships are anticipated to wait two days to dock there, while nearby Shekou will not welcome boats until March 19, with a three-day delay upon reopening.

“We anticipate six to eight weeks of production backlogs, shipping delays, and congestion,” Everstream CEO Julie Gerdeman said. “We’ll probably feel the effects of this in four weeks.”

Chinese authorities had authorized Foxconn and a handful of other manufacturing companies to restart activities using a “closed-loop” mechanism that shuttled workers between company-provided lodging and the factory by the end of the week.

According to Flexport, a freight forwarder located in San Francisco, Chinese cargo is already taking nearly three times as long as before the outbreak to transit from the production gate to the port of departure.

In the near term, a slowdown in Chinese commodities will be excellent news for California ports, which are currently congested with inbound boats. However, once Chinese industries and ports resume regular operations, executives predict that a rush of maritime transport traffic will aim towards the West Coast, perhaps worsening existing traffic congestion.

Interest rate increases by the Federation

According to Windward statistics, when restrictions began to take effect this month, the number of container ships stopping at Russian Baltic Sea ports, notably St. Petersburg, decreased by 40%. As ships were diverted from Russia, nearby ports in Estonia, Latvia, and Germany witnessed almost equivalent increases in trade.

Many shippers are violating the limitations outlined in the sanctions imposed by the United States. Some corporations are steering clear of Russian-flagged boats. Others are hesitant to hire a ship commanded by a Russian. “We’re witnessing increased disruption, congestion, and delays,” Daniel explained. “And that isn’t about to change.”

Major freight companies have suspended new inventory for Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. As per Jan Tiedemann, expert shipping line and port expert for Alphaliner, a research and information business, Maersk had offloaded products midway to Russia when the fighting started at a small Danish port in Kalundborg.

European customs officials’ inspections of items destined for Russia are forcing cargo to pile up at regional hubs and spreading delays across the carrier’s worldwide network, “impacting our clients’ supply chains,” Maersk said in an alert issued on its website. As a result, Hapag-Lloyd is abandoning goods intended for Russia at Black Sea ports such as Constanta in Romania, Burgas in Bulgaria, and Gemlik in Turkey, according to a custom alert.

Sanctions have essentially built a wall encircling Russia. As a result, cargo formerly transported by rail across China and Europe has now been transported by ships or planes. According to Niels Larsen, the head of North American operations for DSV, a Danish transport and logistics firm, around 1.5 million containers might be affected annually.

However, those cargoes will add to the already-existing congestion. Space on cargo vessels is already limited. According to Larsen, aircraft flying from China to Europe must deviate around blocked Russian airspace, adding up to six hours to flight time and necessitating an additional refueling stop in some situations. This substantially decreases capacity on airfreight networks that are already running at significantly lower levels than before the outbreak. When the planes touch down, their cargo will be unloaded at overcrowded airport cargo-handling operations.

“This will have massive ramifications nobody has anticipated,” Larsen warned. “We’ll be returning to the initial periods of COVID when things became very nasty.”

On March 13, the Chinese government placed severe coronavirus limitations on more than 50 million individuals in areas such as Shenzhen, Shanghai, and Changchun. Capital Economics estimates that enterprises in the regions impacted accounted for three-quarters of China’s exports. The actions were taken in response to an alarming increase in infections caused by the coronavirus’s omicron form. Under China’s zero-tolerance policy, even just a tiny number of incidents are enough to impose severe limits on activities.

According to Everstream Analysis, a supply chain risk insights business, more than 50 Chinese facilities in the electronics, automobiles, and consumer goods industries were closed this week. “The danger of global supply chain linkages being cut within China is the biggest that it’s been in two years,” Capital Economics cautioned clients this week.

Zero-Covid limitations in China

According to the head of shipping at HSBC, China’s zero-COVID limitations will influence global supply chain reconstruction since any little interruption in the nation would likely have “ripple effects” throughout the world. Moreover, the epidemic has uncovered “how efficient the supply chain must have grown.” And there isn’t much room for error, “HSBC’s global head of shipping and ports equity research, Parish Jain, agreed.

Because of China’s sheer centrality in global commerce, “any minor disturbance in China would have a long-lasting impact throughout the supply chain,” Jain said on CNBC’s “Squawk Box Asia” on Monday.

Due to recent increases in infections around the country, China, the world’s second-biggest economy, has decided to double down on its zero-COVID campaign.

Covid instances have been recorded in Shenzhen, Tianjin, and Ningbo, and also in the industrial powerhouse of Xi’an, leading to lockdowns and curbs at the main port hubs. As long as China maintains its strict zero-COVID policy, we cannot rule out occasional disruptions throughout the year.

According to national health officials, China recorded 58 new COVID-19 cases on Monday. According to the National Health Commission’s daily statement, 40 new cases were local diseases, with the remaining 18 coming from outside.

Although having a relatively low number of instances compared to many other Asian countries, Beijing has maintained its zero-COVID policy.

As per Our World in Data, China had a 7-day moving average of 0.04 daily instances per million citizens as of Jan. 30, compared to Japan’s 568.8, South Korea’s 290.41, and India’s 180.5. According to Jain, China has the necessary infrastructure to decongest swiftly at the port or along the supply chain.

However, the disruption caused by this will affect the opposite side of the water, he continued. As long as China maintains this robust zero-COVID posture, we can’t rule out a few disruptions as the year develops, “he added.

Since the epidemic started in early 2020, Beijing has implemented a zero-tolerance COVID policy, shutting down whole enterprises or ports in response to a single incidence. It also necessitates strict quarantines and travel restrictions, whether inside a city or with foreign nations, to prevent epidemics. Regulations limiting COVID-19 have had a worldwide impact on manufacturing and shipping activities, worsening the supply chain issue.

Concerns have been raised that the highly contagious omicron strain might cause more damage to the maritime sector. According to Jain, due to the epidemic, some primary container shipping companies “are attempting to have a stronger grip on the whole supply chain,”

On the inner edges of logistics, there is an investment. On the terminal side, there are investments. However, I feel that some of these facilities, especially in the industrialized market, are long overdue. From the shipper’s or customer’s standpoint, I believe that the comfort that they have had over the many previous decades of keeping just-in-time inventory would cause them to reconsider, “he said.


These are purely the opinions of the author based on observations and analysis of financial platforms and a study of public reviews and ratings on how the war in Ukraine with Russia and the Covid-19 new wave in China affect the supply chain of the world. Excerpts from various sources have been used to clarify the facts in this article. A glossary of all the sources used can be found at the end of the article. This article is for educational purposes only and is not financial advice.

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